Jenis-Jenis Batik yang Ada di Indonesia

Batik adalah salah satu cara pembuatan bahan pakaian. Batik adalah kerajinan yang memiliki nilai seni tinggi dan telah menjadi bagian dari budaya Indonesia (khususnya Jawa) sejak lama.

Berikut jenis-jenis batik yang ada di Indonesia dikutip dari berbagai sumber dan media.

1. Batik Pecinan / Cina

Bangsa Cina sudah lama dikenal sebagai Bangsa perantau. Mereka juga dikenal teguh dalam melestarikan adat budaya leluhurnya. Biasanya di negeri perantauan mereka memadukan budaya mereka dengan budaya lokal sebagai bentuk akulturasi budaya. Begitu juga yang terjadi di Indonesia khususnya pada Batik.

Keturunan dari para perantau Cina di Indonesia biasanya memproduksi Batik untuk komunitas sendiri atau juga diperdagangkan. Batik produksi mereka yang disebut Batik Pecinan memiliki ciri khas warnanya cukup variatif dan cerah, dalam selembar kain banyak menampilkan bermacam warna. Motif yang digunakan banyak memasukkan unsur budaya Cina seperti motif burung Hong atau merak, dan Naga. Biasanya pola batik Pecinan lebih rumit dan halus.

Pada jaman dahulu Batik Pecinan yang berbentuk sarung dipadukan dengan Kebaya Encim sebagai busana khas para wanita keturunan Cina di Indonesia. Di Pekalongan yang terkenal memproduksi Batik Pecinan salah satunya ialah Tan Tjie Hou.

2. Batik Belanda

Pada zaman penjajahan Belanda tentunya banyak warga Belanda yang tinggal dan menetap di Indonesia. Mereka ternyata tertarik juga dengan budaya lokal. Sama seperti warga keturunan Cina, warga keturunan Belanda banyak juga yang membuat dan memproduksi batik. Batik yang dihasilkan warga keturunan Belanda ini mempunyai ciri khas tersendiri.

Motif yang digunakan kebanyakan bunga-bunga yang banyak terdapat di Eropa seperti Tulip dan motif tokoh-tokoh cerita dongeng terkenal di sana. Batik model ini sangat disukai di Eropa. Tokoh yang terkenal membuat Batik Belanda di Pekalongan yaitu Van Zuylen dan J.Jans. Karya-karya mereka mendominasi pada abad 20 silam.

3. Batik Rifa’iyah

Batik jenis ini mendapat pengaruh Islam yang kuat. Dalam budaya Islam motif-motif yang berhubungan dengan benda bernyawa tidak boleh digambarkan sama persis sesuai aslinya.

Sesuai hal itu corak dalam batik rifa’iyah terutama yang mengenai motif hewan terlihat kepalanya terpotong. Karena dalam ajaran Islam semua wujud binatang sembelihan yang dihalalkan harus dipotong kepalanya. Biasanya warga keturunan Arab memproduksi batik jenis ini.

4. Batik Pengaruh Kraton

Pembuat batik di Pekalongan sering membuat batik yang motifnya merupakan ciri khas dari Batik Kraton Yogyakarta ataupun Surakarta. Motif gaya kraton yang biasanya di pakai yaitu semen, cuwiri, parang dll. Walaupun bermotif pengaruh kraton tetapi teknik pembuatan dan pewarnaanya dengan gaya Pekalongan. Sehingga lebih unik dan menarik. Perlu diketahui gaya Pekalongan adalah gaya Pesisiran jadi lebih bebas dan banyak mendapat berbagai pengaruh dari luar.

5. Batik Jawa Baru

Di produksi sesudah era batik Jawa Hokokay. Dalam Batik Jawa Baru motif dan warna yang ada pada era batik Jawa Hokokay lebih disederhanakan, tetapi masih berciri khas pagi sore tanpa tumpal. Kebanyakan menggunakan motif rangkaian bunga dan lung-lungan.

6. Batik Jlamprang

Motif-motif Jlamprang atau di Yogyakarta dengan nama Nitik adalah salah satu batik yang cukup popular diproduksi di daerah Krapyak Pekalongan. Batik ini merupakan pengembangan dari motif kain Potola dari India yang berbentuk geometris kadang berbentuk bintang atau mata angin dan menggunakan ranting yang ujungnya berbentuk segi empat. Batik Jlamprang ini diabadikan menjadi salah satu jalan di Pekalongan.

7. Batik Terang Bulan

Suatu desain batik dimana ornamennya hanya di bagian bawah saja baik itu berupa lung-lungan atau berupa ornamen pasung atasnya kosong atau berupa titik-titik. Batik Terang Bulan ini disebut juga Gedong atau Ram-raman.

8. Batik Cap Kombinasi Tulis

Batik kombinasi tulis sebenarnya batik cap di mana proses kedua atau sebelum disoga direntes atau dirining oleh pembatik tulis sehingga batik kelihatan seperti ditulis. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mempercepat produksi batik dan keseragaman.

9. Batik Tiga Negeri Pekalongan

Seperti halnya batik-batik negara lain dimana dalam satu kain terdapat warna merah biru soga yang semua dibuat di Pekalongan terkadang warna biru diganti ungu dan hijau.

10. Sogan Pekalongan

Batik dengan proses dua kali dimana proses pertama latar putih kadang ada coletan, dan untuk proses kedua batik ditanahi penuh atau ornamen plataran berupa titik halus baru setelah itu disoga. Batik Soga terlihat klasik

11. Tribusana

Merupakan batik gaya baru dimana cara pembuatan proses kedua direntas atau riningan dan kebanyakan motif – motif nya lung – lungan lanjuran. Batik Tribusana ini ada yang tahunan dan polos.

12. Batik Pangan / Petani

Batik yang dibuat sebagai selingan kegiatan ibu rumah tangga di rumah dikala tidak pergi ke sawah atau saat waktu senggang. Biasanya batik ini kasar dan kagok serta tidak halus. Motifnya turun temurun sesuai daerah masing-masing dan batik ini dikerjakan secara tidak professional karena hanya sebagai sambilan. Untuk pewarnaan pun diikutkan ke saudagar.

13. Coletan

Dimana dalam suatu kain batik pewarnaan di sebagian tempat menggunakan sistem colet dengan kuas dan untuk pencelupan hanya sekali kecuali warna soga, warna-warna lain menggunakan colet.

14. Batik Kemodelan

Adalah batik-batik klasik baik itu dari gaya Yogya maupun Solo, dibuat dengan komposisi baru dengan pewarnaan Pekalongan dan kelihatan modern. Hal ini sangat popular di era zaman Soekarno untuk membuat batik Yogya dan Solo untuk ditambahi warna.

15. Batik Osdekan

Dalam suatu kain batik akan timbul satu warna akan dibatik lagi terus ditimpa dengan warna lagi baik itu berupa warna tua muda atau warna lain, hal ini membuat warna batik lebih hidup dan seperti ada baying-bayang.

16. Batik Modern

Batik yang dalam prosesnya terutama dalam pewarnaan menggunakan sistem baru yang biasanya dalam pencelupan sekarang menggunakan sistem lain baik tu berupa gradasi, urat kayu maupun rintang broklat. Motif-motif ini adalah motif baru yang berhubungan dengan estetika. Komposisi gaya bebas batik ini popular di era tahun 80 an.

17. Batik Kontemporer

Suatu batik yang tidak lazim kelihatan batik, tetapi masih menggunakan proses pembuatannya sama seperti membuat batik.

18. Batik Cap

Batik yang pembuatannya menggunakan alat berbentuk cap atau stamp baik itu proses coletan maupun keliran.

Nah itulah beberapa jenis-jenis batik yang ada di Indonesia. Mungkin masih banyak lagi jenis-jenis batik yang lainnya, namun belum terekpos oleh media. Semoga bermanfaat dan dapat menambah wawasan kalian.

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